Philippe-Paul de Ségur writes of the disaster encountered by the Army of Italy commanded by Prince Eugène, Napoleon’s step/adopted son. Eugène had been ordered to leave the main route of the march and head from Dorogobuzh to Vitebsk to assist Marshal Oudinot. In their path lay the river Vop which had been a small stream months before, but had now become a flooded river.
Ségur writes: “[The Vop] was a river, flowing on a wide bed of mud, with very steep banks on either side. These ice-coated banks had to be cut through, and the order was given to tear down the houses in the neighborhood during the night to obtain lumber for a bridge. But the Viceroy [Eugène], who was more loved than feared, was not obeyed. The pontoon corps worked only halfheartedly, and when dawn brought the Cossacks back, the bridge which had collapsed twice was abandoned.”
“Five or six thousand soldiers still in orderly formation, twice as many disbanded men, and the sick or wounded, over a hundred guns with their caissons, and innumerable vehicles lined the riverbank over an area of several square miles. They tried to ford the river through the blocks of ice swept along by the current. The first cannon that made the attempt reached the opposite bank safely; but the water was rising higher minute by minute, and the wheels and the horses’ struggles were digging a constantly deepening path at the point from which they crossed. One heavy ammunition wagon became hopelessly stuck in the mud, others piled up on it, and everything came to a stop.”
“But day was drawing to a close, and they were wearing themselves out in fruitless efforts. Pressed by the hunger, cold, and the Cossacks, the Viceroy had no choice but to order the abandonment of his artillery and all his supplies. It was a sorrowful sight. The owners of this wealth had scarcely time to part company with their possessions. While they were selecting the most indispensable objects and loading them onto their horses, a mob of soldiers fell upon the magnificent carriages and broke everything to pieces, avenging themselves for their poverty and suffering on this wealth, and keeping it from the Cossacks who were watching from a distance.”
“Most of the soldiers, interested chiefly in food, rejected embroidered garments, pictures, gilded bronzes, valuable ornaments in favor of a few handfuls of flour. That evening the riverbank presented a strange sight, with the riches of Paris and Moscow, the luxuries of two of the world’s great cities, lying scattered and despised on the snowy waste.”
“Meanwhile the artillerymen, knowing there was no hope, were spiking their guns and scattering their powder…”
“A few hundred men, still bearing the name of the 14th Division, were left to oppose these barbarians [Cossacks], and they were able to keep them at a respectful distance till the next morning. All the others, soldiers, administrators, women and children, sick and wounded, pursued by the enemy’s fire, crowded to the edge of the torrent But at the sight of the swollen waters and the enormous, jagged sheets of ice, they drew back, dreading to increase the already unbearable cold by plunging into the icy stream.”
“It was an Italian, Colonel Delfanti, who made the first move. Then the soldiers pressed forward, and the crowd followed. Only the weakest, the most cowardly, or the greediest remained on the bank. Such as could not bring themselves to part with their plunder, to abandon their fortunes, were punished for their hesitation. the next day, the savage Cossacks were seen in the midst of all this wealth, still covetous of the dirty, tattered garments of the unfortunate creatures who had become their prisoners. After taking all their clothes they collected them in bands and drove them naked through the snow, beating them cruelly with the shafts of their spears.”
NOTE: Ségur calls the river the Wop while George F. Nafziger calls it the Vop. The proper name is Vop.
Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, Philippe-Paul de Ségur, pp 177 – 179