Tag Archives: Borodino

Napoleon at Borodino 2012

Today we have the ultimate guest blog post.  While Napoleon himself has long since passed on, he is ably represented in our time by Mark Schneider who has portrayed Napoleon at events around the world since 2005.  As you can tell from the photos and the story below, Napoleon is fortunate to have Mark carry on his legacy.

Because this blog is about the experiences of the soldiers on the Russian campaign, I asked Mark if he would be willing to write about his thoughts and experiences during the re-enactment marking the 200th anniversary of the battle of Borodino (la Moskova).  He readily agreed and here is the result.

Mark Schneider as Napoleon
Borodino 2012

When I look back at the great experiences that I have had portraying Napoleon since 2005, one of the great highlights will certainly have to be “La Bataille de la Moskova.” My name is Mark Schneider and I have had the great honor and pleasure to portray Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte in Europe since 2005. My first event was Waterloo and the experience has changed my life forever. Since that fateful afternoon in June, 2005, I have also had the honor to portray Napoleon at the 200th anniversary of Austerlitz (2005,), Jena (2006,) Berlin (2006,) Erfurt (2008,) and many other anniversary events such as Hollabrunn (2006-7,) Mormant (2007,) Borodino (2007,) Waterloo (2008,) Austerlitz (2007,8,11,) Sarzana (2011,) Jena (2011,) and now the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino!

Appearing as Napoleon at the 195th anniversary of Borodino gave me a taste of what it was going to be like in 2012. The battlefield was truly amazing to behold. The museum of Borodino was also quite magnificent with such items as Kutuzov’s carriage, uniforms and sadly even a French Eagle as well as many cannons. I was given a tour of many portions of the battlefield that I had read about since I was a child in David Chandler’s “Campaigns Of Napoleon” as well as de Ségur’s “Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, Paul Britten Austin’s “1812-Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia,” and Caulaincourt’s “With Napoleon in Russia.” It was one thing to read about this battlefield and quite another to walk or ride upon it! All of this was a great introduction to the huge anniversary event that would take place 5 years later.

I was asked to attend the 200th anniversary event of Borodino over a year before it took place. My host was Alexander Valkovitch, a great historian and friend who has participated in many events with me to include Hollabrunn and Erfurt as Czar Alexander I. When all of the planning and organizing was complete, I received the official invitation. I was most excited to attend this great event that would commemorate the bloodiest single day in the Napoleonic Wars. Well, just as Napoleon had a long way to go in the campaign before Borodino was fought, so I too had a long way to go before I finally received my VISA! Once in my hand I was off to Moscow! It was a long journey, just as it was a long journey for the Grande Armee. Upon arrival, I then had to drive the 150KM south-west to the battlefield, and though I was not harassed by cossacks, there was a tremendous amount of Russian vehicle traffic on the highway. Upon arrival, I discovered that it was all worth it because I was about to participate in one of the most amazing events in re-enacting history.

Preparing the Meal

I arrived just as the sun was going down and our driver was kind enough to point out some of the monuments on the way. When we finally pulled into the camp site it was quite a sight to behold. The hundreds of tents and horses and cannons and soldiers walking about certainly made me feel as if I had returned back to September of 1812. I met my host Alexander Valkovitch and some other old friends from past events, and we enjoyed a late dinner and spoke of the battle and the days to come. I would turn in at a rather early hour of 11 pm and my accommodations would not be a tent but rather a former Soviet school! Just for one night though for the next night would be in the field.

Re-enactors’ Camp at Borodino 2012

After a restful night’s sleep, I donned my Chasseur a Cheval de la Garde Imperiale habit, and began the event. A quick Russian breakfast, a few press interviews and I was off to the cavalry camp where I would find my horse and my escort of the Chasseurs a Cheval commanded by my friend Capitaine Jean-Francois Remy Neris. At the cavalry camp there were many of my old friends waiting and it was truly a delight to see them. The sun was shining and all was well. I mounted my gray horse “Tauris” and went to the battlefield to review the Army. It was truly amazing to see so many beautiful units in attendance! Infantry, artillery and so many cavalry! Cuirassiers, Carabiniers, hussars, lancers, Chasseurs, Grenadiers a cheval and more! Truly a sight to see.

The Saturday event was basically a rehearsal for the main event on Sunday. We spent many hours in the saddle upon the battlefield watching the two great armies maneuver, fire, charge, get used to their mounts and prepare for the big day. As the day began to end, we marched back to the cavalry camp where we would rest for the night.

Mark Schneider as Napoleon and
former French President
Valéry Giscard d’Estaing

The next morning found the weather cloudy, cool and rainy. The Grande Armee was to participate in a ceremony by the one monument on the Borodino battlefield that honored the Grande Armee. In attendance was former President of the French Republic, Valéry Giscard d’Estaing. He gave a very moving speech honoring all the soldiers that had died, and then I had the honor to meet with him and shake his hand.

When the ceremony was over, the rain was falling, but the battle had to go on! 200,000 people were expected to attend, rain or shine. We had time for a quick lunch and then it was back in the saddle and on to the battlefield.

Mark Schneider as Napoleon
Acknowledges the Crowd

To say that it was amazing is an understatement! At the head of the Etat-Major and the cavalry we marched out of the woods on to the field. What a spectacle! Thousands of soldiers and 200,000 people! We took up our positions and the battle began. Though there was a drizzle, I think it added to the atmosphere. When the cannons and the muskets began firing it obscured portions of the battlefield so at certain moments you could not see the crowd

The Semenovskaya phase
of the re-enactment

and only the soldiers on the field. It was as if September 7th 1812 had returned! From my position on the hill I could observe the entire field. I rode past the army to give them some encouragement, and then the onslaught began. The Great Redoubt had to be taken! The cannons roared, the cavalry charged, occasionally with riders tumbling off their mounts! Fortunately there were no serious injuries. As all this was going on, a narrator was giving a play by play of what was happening. As the battle continued, I left the safety of my ridge, with the Imperial Guard close at

Marshal Michel Ney
Portrayed by Franky Simon

hand and decided to take a closer look at the action. Marshal Ney rode up to me and said that the victory was ours if we would only commit the Guard, but I simply could not commit my last reserves so far from home. Victory would have to come with the men already engaged. I sent him back into the fray. The commander of my escort cautioned me that it was dangerous for the Emperor to be so close to the action, and he was right! Soon a Regiment of Cossacks was on us, galloping straight for me! My Chasseurs jumped into action and saved me, giving me time to place myself behind my beloved Guard. The battle began to come to an end. Just as the brave soldiers of the Grande Armée as well as the Russian Army fought to exhaustion that fateful day, so did the brave re-enactors. The time had come to end this great spectacle. The armies formed up in front of the thousands of spectators who had weathered the rain and cold . We galloped past them half a dozen times saluting them as well as the brave combatants. It was a moment I will never forget.

Traffic at the Re-enactment
of Borodino 2012

The armies then began to march off, and I, still escorted by my faithful Chasseurs a cheval, began my ride back to the cavalry camp. Upon arrival I thanked my horse for bringing me safely through this weekend spectacular. I had a brief rest with my comrades, but soon it was time for me to go. After one last goodbye and thank you to my host Alexander Valkovitch, I had to get back on the road to the airport in Moscow. 200,000 people would be joining me, so a trip that would normally take one and half hours, now took five! It was worth it!

Vive l’Empereur!

I will never forget this amazing event at Borodino. It was truly a dream come true for me. I have been interested in Napoleon and his times since I was a little boy and dreamed of fighting in his battles. Well now that dream has come true. More than all of that, it was an honor to take part in an event that honored all of the soldiers that fought and died that day. I hope that by remembering and reenacting such a great event in history and all the sacrifices that were made, no one will ever forget.

Mark Schneider
“NAPOLEON”

Blogger’s Note:  Thank you Mark for this terrific post!  ~ Scott Armstrong

“That Day Will Be Remembered Forever” A Re-enactor’s Story of Borodino

Alexey Temnikov, a re-enactor with the French 5th Cuirassiers, recently participated in the 200th anniversary of the battle of Borodino.  I met Alexey through Facebook and he has been extremely generous with his time and talents in translating Russian for me, sharing photos and images depicting the period as well as providing the information for this blog post about the re-enactment at Borodino.

Alexey Temnikov at Borodino
2012

2012 is the 200th anniversary of the Patriotic War of 1812 when the Russians defeated Napoleon.  Many re-enactments of battles from that year have taken place (Smolensk, Pavlovsky Posad, Tarutino and Maloyaroslavets) and another yet to come (Berezina).  In addition there have been exhibitions, festivals and concerts.  New movies have been filmed and small battles have been staged even in places Napoleon did not go such as Krasnoyarsk.  But the biggest event of all was the re-construction of the battle of Borodino held in early September.

The 5th Regiment of Cuirassiers Salute
The Emperor

Alexey became interested in the Napoleonic period when his parents gave him a copy of In the Terrible Time by Mikhail Bragin as a birthday present.  He sought out and watched the movies War and Peace and Waterloo and was hooked.  An admirer of horses and a rider from a young age, only the hussars would do when Alexey decided to join a re-enactment regiment in 1992.  He remembers calculating how old he would be at the 200th of Borodino.  Originally, he joined the Russian cuirassiers wearing the uniforms of the Military Order of St. George.  In 2002, however, his career called and he left re-enacting.  After a visit to Borodino, Alexey returned to the hobby in 2010, this time as a member of the 5th Regiment of Cuirassiers of Napoleon’s army, a unit where he had many friends.  As an added benefit, he was able to do some re-enactments with his son, Andrew.

To stage a re-enactment of Borodino required much planning.  An event of this significance attracted thousands of re-enactors from around the world: The United States, Canada, Europe and all over Russia.  There were problems with visas and permission to bring weapons into the country.  Horses that used to rent for $100 per day now had a going rate of $170.  Tents had to be found for the participants from abroad.  Organizers bought firewood, straw and hay, and brought in toilets as well as bathing and drinking water.  Fellow re-enactors stepped forward to help provide what the organizers could not, such as warm clothes, hot food and beverages to keep their guests warm.  Some of these re-enactors arrived 10 – 15 days ahead of the anniversary.  Regiments cooked their own food leading up to the event when organizers fed them for the last two days.

President Vladimir Putin
Inspects a Soldier

On the day of the event, September 2, there were ceremonies to honor the fallen of 200 years ago.  The Russian ceremony was on the Rayevski battery at the Great Redoubt.  The French ceremony was held at the monument for the Fallen of the Grande Armée.  Russian President Vladimir Putin represented Russia while former French President Valéry Giscard d’Estaing represented France.  In the soldiers’ camp, Alexey’s 5th Regiment of Cuirassiers held their own ceremony honoring members who had passed away.  They made a display of photos of these fallen comrades who were unable to be there on that special day.

The logistics of accommodating the crowd and preparing for the visit of President Putin were enormous.  Security forces examined the entire area of the re-enactment and uncovered 32 kilograms of explosives from WWII.  Roads were blocked by the police and tourists had to walk as far as eight kilometers to the site.

It Began to Rain
Near the End of the Battle

The battle was re-enacted in three stages: the battle for the town of Borodino and the crossing of the Koloch river, the attack on the village of Semenovskaya, and the assault on the Great Redoubt.  Rain began to fall as the two hour re-enactment came to an end with many horses falling on the wet grass.

Mikhail Kutuzov at Borodino 2012
Portrayed by Pavel Timofeev

The crowd was ecstatic with the appearance of Mark Schneider and Pavel Timofeev portraying Emperor Napoleon and General Mikhail Kutuzov, respectively.  Alexey said having them there added beauty to the battle.

Alexey summed his experience up as follows: “Borodino has an extraordinary aura, a kind of energy.  It is hard to describe, but one can feel it.  In the evening fog as if the shadows of the fallen, one cannot help thinking – I am not a coward, but how can I go into battle and kill people with my sword and trample them with my horse?  I fall asleep to the sounds of the camp and the neighing of the horses.  For all of us, all of Russia and all of the visitors – that day will be remembered forever.”

Blogger’s Note –

I (Scott Armstrong) grew up doing American Revolutionary War re-enacting with my family so I have a particular interest in the re-enacting aspect.  Our Borodino was the siege of Yorktown, which led to the surrender of Lord Cornwallis’ army, and eventually, to the end of the war which gave America her independence.  I was fortunate enough to attend the 200th anniversary of that event with my father in 1981 and the 225th in 2006, this time with my own family as well as my father.

Re-enactment at Yorktown 1981
Scott Armstrong is on the very far right (1/2 cut off),
back to the camera, wearing a green coat.
His Father, Jack Armstrong, is third from the right
wearing a brown coat, back to the camera

As I look at the photos and hear the stories about re-enacting the Napoleonic period, I am reminded of how much it looks like American Revolutionary War re-enacting here in the United States (although the Napoleonic re-enactors have better uniforms and more horses).  During the US Bicentennial, my father and I spent many weekends traveling to re-enact on the various 200th anniversaries of battles of the American War for Independence.  Growing up outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, we were centrally located for events from Quebec, Canada to Savannah, Georgia.  We even did re-enacting in France and later in England.

We are both still members of the Ist Continental Regiment from Pennsylvania.  Growing up as a re-enactor gave me many unforgettable experiences: Parades in Philadelphia, New York City, and Paris (on the Champs Elysée), serving as an honor guard for a former US President (Ford), a battle at Dover castle in England, travelling in National Guard army trucks and, of course, participating in many battle re-enactments.

There were also other benefits to this hobby.  All of those hours spent in the car with my father gave us much time to talk and be together.  I also met my wife through re-enacting when she and her father joined our regiment.  We became engaged at a re-enactment in Colonial Williamsburg and have since attended many re-enactments with our own family. ~ Scott Armstrong

The Wounded of Borodino are Left Behind

As the army passed by the field of the great battle, Surgeon-General Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey observed that the wounded, “… were squatting in a stinking infectious barn, surrounded on all sides by corpses, almost never receiving any rations and obliged to eat cabbage stalks boiled with horseflesh to escape the horrors of famine.  Because of a severe shortage of linen, their wounds had seldom been dressed.  ”

Napoleon ordered that the wounded be loaded onto carts and 200 Württembergers were set to the task.  Surgeon Heinrich von Roos noted, “The order was carried out in the most punctilious fashion, and wall was finished in an hour and a half.  Every carriage, whether it belonged to a marshal or a colonel, every wagon, every cantinière‘s cart or droschka had to take one or two.”

“However good the Emperor’s intentions, it turned out badly for the poor wounded.  They fell into the hands of crude-minded coachmen, insolent valets, brutal sutlers, enriched and arrogant women, brothers-in-arms without pity, and all the riff-raff of the train.  All these people only had one idea: how to get rid of their wounded.”

General Armand de Caulaincourt of Napoleon’s staff wrote, “[I had never seen] a sight so horrible as our army’s march 48 hours after Mojaisk.  Every heart was closed to pity by fear of starvation, of losing the overladen vehicles, of seeing the starving exhausted horses die.  I still shudder when I tell you I’ve seen men deliberately drive their horses at speed over rough ground, so as to get rid of the unfortunates overburdening them.  Though they knew the horses would mutilate them or the wheels crush them, they’d smile triumphantly, even so, when a jolt freed them from one of these poor wretches.  Every man thought of himself and himself alone.”

Major C.F.M. Le Roy is in Mojaisk when he sees the loading of the 200 wagons that have been brought from Moscow for the 2,000 wounded there.  “Having left Moscow already full of refugees, women and children, the vehicles had had to take up the men wounded at Winkovo and Malojaroslavetz.  And now these at Mojaisk!”

The wounded are carried out and “…placed on the top-seats, on the fore-carriages, behind on trunks, on the seats, in the fodder-carts.  They were even put on the hoods of the wagons if there wasn’t any room underneath.  One can imagine the spectacle our convoys presented.  At the smallest jolt the least securely placed fell off.  The drivers took no care.  And the driver who followed after, if not distracted or in a stupor or away from his horses, or even for fear of stopping and losing his place in the queue, would drive on pitilessly over the body of the wretch who’d fallen.”

And finally, Colonel Louis-Francois Lejeune attempts to save some of the wounded [on October 30] by propping up horses that have dropped from hunger and harnessing them to carts filled with the wounded.  “But scarcely had they dragged themselves a few paces than they died.  So our wounded remained there, abandoned.  And as we went off and left them, averting our glances, we had to harden our hearts to their cries.”

Source:
1812: The Great Retreat – told by the Survivors, Paul Britten Austin, pp 42, 46 – 47, 52

“The Field of the Great Battle”

By heading back to the Smolensk-Moscow road, the army would have to pass by the field of Borodino where little had been done to bury the dead from the battle in early September.  Jakob Walter gives his account, “Finally we went over the battlefield at Moshaisk in the Holy Valley.  Here one saw again in what numbers the dead lay.  From the battle site on to this place the corpses were dragged from the highways, and entire hollows were filled with them.  Gun barrels lay one on top of another in many piles from fifteen to twenty feet in height and in width where we bivouacked for the night.”

After the Battle of Borodino
Commemorative 1912 Russian
Candy Box Card

Philippe-Paul de Ségur records his recollection of passing the field, “Beyond the Kolocha we were plodding along, absorbed in thought, when some of the men, happening to look up, gave a cry of horrified surprise.  We all stared around us, and saw a field, trampled, devastated, with every tree shorn off a few feet above the earth.  In the background stood a number of hummocks with their tops blown off, the highest of which seemed the most misshapen.  The spot had the appearance of a flattened, extinct volcano. Everywhere the earth was littered with battered helmets and breastplates, broken drums, fragments of weapons, shreds of uniforms, and bloodstained flags.  Lying amid this desolation were thirty thousand half-devoured corpses.  The scene was dominated by a number of skeletons lying on the crumbled slope of one of the hills; death seemed to have established its throne up there.  This was the terrible redoubt which had been the victory and the grave of Caulaincourt.  Along our lines ran the sad murmur, ‘The field of the Great Battle!'”

Sources:
The Diary of a Napoleonic Foot Soldier, Jakob Walter, p. 62

Napoleon’s Russian Campaign, Philippe-Paul de Ségur, p. 159

“Without Aid of Any Kind”

From the journal of Colonel Montesquiou Duc de Fezensac with Ney’s III Corps, we learn about the army’s arrival at the Smolensk-Moscow road on the 29th.

“The roads were encumbered with carriages of all descriptions, which arrested our progress at every step; then we had to cross the swollen streams, sometimes on a rickety plank, sometimes by wading with the water up to our waist…  on the 29th, leaving to our right the ruins of Mojaisk, we reached the great road below that town.”

“The sufferings which we were doomed to undergo …  We had now nothing to look forward to before Smolensko, which was 80 leagues distant.  Until our arrival there, we should seek in vain for either flour, meat, or forage for our horses.  We were reduced to those provisions we had brought from Moscow, and these, trifling as they were, like all plunder, were most unequally distributed…Some companies had abundance, while others were starving…  Moreover, to preserve our provisions, the horses that drew them must also be preserved, but these perished in numbers every day also from the want of food.

Russian Uhlans on Exploration
Commemorative 1912 Russian
Candy Box Card

The soldiers who strayed from their ranks to seek wherewith to relieve their hunger, fell into the hands of the Cossacks and armed peasants…  From the very first day, our retreat had the semblance of a rout…  A column of Russian prisoners marched immediately in our front, escorted by troops of the confederation of the Rhine.  They barely received a little horse-flesh for food, and their guards massacred those who could no longer march.  We came across some of their corpses, which, without exception, had their skulls knocked in.  I must do the soldiers of my regiment the justice to record their indignation on beholding these evidences of so dark a deed; moreover they were not insensible to the cruel reprisals which this conduct exposed them to, should they chance to fall into the hands of the enemy.”

After the Battle of Borodino
Commemorative 1912 Russian
Candy Box Card

“As we passed through the village of Borodino, several officers revisited the field of the Moscowa [Borodino].  They found the ground still covered with the vestiges of the battle.  The dead of the two armies still lay on the spot where they had received their death wound.  It has been even said that some wounded were discovered who were still breathing.  I can scarcely credit this, and no proof of it has ever been furnished.”

“On the evening of the 29th October, we arrived at the Abbey Kolastskoé.  It had been converted into a  hospital, and was now one vast burying-ground.  A single  building…  had also served as a hospital for our sick.  Commanding officers received orders to identify here the men belonging to their respective regiments.  We found that the sick had been left without medicine, without provisions, without aid of any kind.  I could scarcely penetrate into the interior from the filth which obstructed the staircase, passages, and even the rooms themselves.  I came across three men of my regiment, whom I had the gratification of saving.”

Sources:
A Journal of the Russian Campaign of 1812, Raymond Eymery P.J. Montesquiou-Fezensac, translated by W. Knollys, published in 1852, pp. 75 – 77

Commemorative 1912 card images and translations provided by Alexey Temnikov

Eugène: Napoleon’s True Son

Today’s post is by a guest blogger, Alice Shepperson.  Alice read my earlier blog post about the portrait of the King of Rome and wondered how Eugène de Beauharnais, Napoleon’s step-son and adopted son felt about the situation.  Alice and I exchanged a few emails and she agreed to put her Cambridge history degree to work and the result is this post on the relationship between Napoleon and Eugène.

Without further delay, here is Alice’s post:

Background

Legend has it that Eugène de Beauharnais first met Napoleon when he was 15. He had come to the office of the commander of the Convention’s

Eugène de Beauharnais

troops in order to beg the return of his father’s sword, which had been confiscated, along with all other weapons in Paris. General Alexandre de Beauharnais had been executed the previous summer during the Terror, and Eugène was anxious to secure the return of this keepsake. Impressed by his courage, General Bonaparte returned the sword and invited the young man to visit him again. When he did so, his mother Josephine tagged along, and the rest is history.

Although Eugène recalled in his memoirs that “I have never been able to forget the agony I endured when I realized that my mother had made up her mind to marry again,” he quickly formed a very close attachment to his new step-father who he was anxious to please. Eugène wished to be a soldier, so in 1797 Napoleon took him to Italy as his aide-de-camp and then to Egypt the following year. Eugène was quick to prove himself. After the battle of Marengo, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that, “…your son is making rapid strides on the road to immortality. He has covered himself in glory in all the battles in Italy.”

Though not perhaps an outstanding military genius, Eugène proved

himself brave, hard working, reliable and loyal, and became thoroughly proficient in military strategy and logistics – talents which Napoleon found ample use for.  A steady stream of promotions followed: he was colonel by the age of 22 and a general two years later. In addition to military rank, be became a prince of the French Empire in 1804 and Viceroy of Italy in 1805.

Eugène later earned the epithet “The Bayard of the century, without fear and without reproach” (a title which unfortunately lacks punch unless you know of the exploits of the Chevalier de Bayard (1473–1524)). In addition to his physical bravery, perhaps the most remarkable feature of Eugène’s character was his spotless honour. In an imperial court where Bonaparte’s family were continually conspiring to secure advancement and political gain, it was a blessing to Napoleon to have one person who was, as Madame Remusat described Eugène, “simple and frank, light-hearted and open in all his dealings, displaying no ambition, holding himself aloof from every intrigue, and doing his duty wherever he was placed”.

The Russia Campaign

Napoleon in 1812

By 1812, Eugène was an experienced soldier, having led the Army of Italy since the Wagram campaign of 1809. Napoleon had formally adopted Eugène in 1806 and their relationship had survived the divorce of the Empress; in fact when Eugène had suggested following his mother into retirement, the Emperor had replied “Do you want to leave me, then, Eugene? You  . . . ah! …Supposing I have a son… who will take my place by his side when I am absent? Who would be a father to him if I died? Who would make a man of him?” Though the birth of the “Eaglet” in 1811 had distanced the Emperor a little from his first son, the bond remained strong.

In the Russian campaign, Eugène once more commanded the Army of Italy. He wrote frequent letters home to his wife, Princess Augusta of Bavaria, who was pregnant with their fourth child. On July 6th, he writes from Vilna that “Yesterday the Emperor asked me a great many questions about you. I begged him to allow me to call our next little darling after him, if it should be a boy. He replied, ‘Yes, gladly.'” Luckily, the child turned out to be a girl.

HQ on 9 July 1812
by Albrecht Adam
Adam served on Eugène’s staff

Eugène commanded the left wing of the army at the Battle of Borodino on the 7th September and entered Moscow with the rest of the army on the 14th September. On the 18th, he writes to Augusta “This city is almost entirely in ashes… The Russians have been guilty of the utmost barbarity in thus ruining 300,000 inhabitants and 600 of the greatest seigneurs in Russia, in order to prevent us obtaining possession of their flour, wine, furs and cattle… From 8 to 10,000 inhabitants remained in the town; they are now naked, starving, without a roof over their heads… it is awful!”

During the army’s stay in Moscow, Eugène was often at the Emperor’s side. They played vingt-et-un to pass the time, but found few other amusements in the city, “not even a billiard table”. Things got so dull that the Emperor asked Eugène to have a particular troop of singers sent up from Italy, though it quickly became apparent that this would be impossible. There was however, time for shopping. On the 28th September, he writes to Augusta that “The courier has started with the furs and a small store of tea; he will arrive in time, I hope, for your first soiree when tea will take the place of ices. Here we shall have more ice than tea, and everybody is getting out their fur coats in consequence; as for me, I shall wrap myself up in fur from top to toe.” Eugène’s Italian troops felt the cold even more keenly than the French, being unused to cold winters.

It would be on the retreat from Moscow that Eugène would show his true worth, distinguishing himself in the rearguard actions at Malojaroslawitz and Borowsk, and doing perhaps more than any other general to maintain the coherence and morale of the frozen columns of men. By December, it would be Eugène who shepherded the last survivors of the Grande Armée back across the Nieman.

Bibliography

Napoleon and His Adopted Son Eugene de Beauharnais by V. M. Montagu

The Memoirs of the Empress Josephine by Madame de Remusat, written between 1818 and 1821.

Napoleon and Josephine: An Improbable Marriage by Evangeline Bruce.

Wikipedia

Be sure to visit Alice’s blog Noon Observation, where her razor wit and keen observations are on display. ~ Scott Armstrong

Monuments at Borodino

I recently saw some photos taken on the field at Borodino by Elena Khonineva who was part of a tour group in July of this year.  With Elena’s permission, I am glad to share them here.

A Grateful Russia
to its Defenders

This monument was built in 1912, destroyed in the 1920’s and rebuilt in 1995.  The architect was S. K. Rodionov.

Kutusov Monument at Gorski

Monument Chief of the Russian armies, MI Golenishchev-Kutuzov at the command post of the commander.  Built in 1912 by the military engineer PA Vorontsov – Sonya.  Located on a hill in the center of the village of Gorki on the main observation post commander. From the top of the hill is easily visible position of the Russian troops in the day of battle.

The obelisk is red granite topped bronze soaring eagle, holding in its claws gilded laurel wreath – a symbol of victory. On the front edge gold bright sword, aiming point up – terrible warning to the conquerors. Below – a niche with a bronze bas-relief, which depicts MI Kutuzov

Plaque from the base
of the Kutusov monument

issuing commands. Above the bas – words from the report of the commander Alexander I of the results of the battle of Borodino, “The enemy is reflected in all areas.” On the back side of the monument text: “From Field Marshal Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev – Kutuzov led troops in battle at p. Borodino August 26, 1812. ”

Monument to the French

 

This monument near Shevardino redoubt was made in 1913 on the site of Napoleon’s command post on the day of the Battle of Borodino. P.P.Besvilvalde architect. The monument was created, brought and placed on the French, with the consent of the Russian government in memory of the Napoleonic soldiers, officers and generals who were killed at Borodino on September 5-7 1812.

Monument to
3rd Infantry Division

The monument to the 3rd Infantry Division of General P.P. Konovnitsyn (built by architect A. Godunov 1912) on the grounds of the Borodinsky Savior Convent, which was built on Bagration’s fleches from 1839-1859.

Main Monument
to the Russians

This monument is on the site of the Raevsky redoubt.

Monument to Russian
27th Infantry Division

Monument to the 27th Infantry Division of General D.P. Neverovsky (1912).

Memorial to Russian
4th Infantry Division
of General Y E Vyutembergsky

Borodino Mile Marker

Thank you to Elena Khonineva for providing the photos (except for the Main Monument and the French monument) and some of the descriptions.

If any readers have more information on any of the above monuments, or others, please let me know and I will be happy to update this post — Scott Armstrong